Selinum carvifolia

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Selinum carvifolia is a flowering plant of the genus Selinum in the family Apiaceae. The specific name carvifolia signifies 'having leaves resembling those of Caraway'.[1] It is a plant of fens and damp meadows, growing in most of Europe, with the exception of much of the Mediterranean region, eastwards to Central Asia. Its common name in English is Cambridge Milk Parsley, because it is confined, in the UK, to the county of Cambridgeshire and closely resembles Milk Parsley (Peucedanum palustre), an umbellifer of another genus, but found in similar habitats. The two plants are not only similar in appearance, but also grow in similar moist habitats, although they may be told apart in the following manner: P. palustre has hollow, often purplish stems, pinnatifid leaf lobes and deflexed bracteoles; while S. carvifolia has solid, greenish stems, entire or sometimes lobed leaf-lobes and erecto-patent bracteoles. Also, when the two plants are in fruit, another difference becomes apparent: the three dorsal ridges on the fruit of S. carvifolia are winged, while those on the fruit of P. palustre are not. Yet a further difference lies in the respective leaflets of the plants : those of Peucedanum palustre are blunt and pale at the tip, while those of Selinum carvifolia are sharply pointed and of a darker green.[2] S. carvifolia used also to occur in the English counties of Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire but is now extinct in both. Growing in only three small Cambridgeshire fens, it is one of England's rarest umbellifers.[3] It is naturalized in the United States, where it is known by the common name little-leaf angelica.[4]

Habitat

In the UK, this lowland, perennial herb occurs in fens, damp meadows and rough-grazed marshy pasture on calcareous peaty soils or fen peat overlying chalk. It does not, however, grow on the wettest ground in fens, preferring slightly better-drained fringe areas and low banks. In continental Europe, by contrast, it has been recorded in a much wider range of habitats, including oakwoods in Poland, and, curiouser still, hot dry limestone in Bosnia and Croatia.[5]

Chemistry

Selinum carvifolia has been found to contain a guaiene, certain trimethylbenzaldehydes (see also pages aldehyde and benzaldehyde) and minor amounts of other derivatives of the terpenoid (sesquiterpene-coumarin) ferulol. The main constituents of the closely related species S. broteri of Brittany (regarded by some botanists as a subspecies of S. carvifolia) are ferulyl senecioate, isoferulyl senecioate and ferulyl acetoxysenecioate.[6][7] Trimethylbenzaldehydes occur not only in plants belonging to the Apiaceae, but also in certain members of the Iridaceae : 2,4,6-Trimethylbenzaldehyde occurs in a variety of herbs and spices including Culantro (the leaves of the Apiaceous Eryngium foetidum) and in Saffron (derived from the Iridaceous Crocus sativus).[8] The compound ferulol was first isolated from (and thus named for) the Apiaceous genus Ferula in the year 2006 - the species in question being the Palestinian F. sinaica.[9]

Edibility/Toxicity

As its common name in English suggests, Selinum carvifolia has a somewhat Parsley-like scent if crushed, although unlike Caraway (from which its specific name derives) it is not a highly aromatic Umbellifer.[10] Records of its having been used as a food, seasoning or medicinal plant are hard to come by, but neither is it listed as a poisonous plant.[11]

References

  1. ^ Murray, Lady Charlotte (c. 1799) A Descriptive Catalogue of Hardy Plants, Indigenous Or Cultivated in the Climate of Great Britain; with Their Generic and Specific Characters, Latin and English Names, Native Country, and Time of Flowering 3rd edition 1808, volume 1, p. 227.
  2. ^ Blamey, Marjorie; Fitter, Richard; Fitter, Alastair (2013). Wild flowers of Britain and Ireland (2nd ed.). London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4081-7950-5.
  3. ^ Umbellifers of the British Isles B.S.B.I. Handbook No.2. Tutin, T.G. Pub. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London 1980.
  4. ^ "Selenocarpus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  5. ^ Online Atlas of the Flora of UK and Ireland
  6. ^ Reduron, J-P Notes on the Umbelliferae of France, with special reference to poorly known taxa South African Journal of Botany 2004, 70(3): 449–457
  7. ^ Farahi SM (2001) Étude phytochimique d’Apiacées: Selinum broteri, Eryngium giganteum, Ammi huntii. Chemistry Thesis, University Haute-Alsace, Mulhouse, France
  8. ^ https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Mesitaldehyde#section=Top
  9. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Abouelhamd_Mohamed/publication/297174033_Ferulol_and_epi-Samarcandin_Two_New_Sesquiterpene_Coumarins_from_Ferula_Sinaica/links/581795ba08ae90acb2429864/Ferulol-and-epi-Samarcandin-Two-New-Sesquiterpene-Coumarins-from-Ferula-Sinaica.pdf?origin=publication_detail
  10. ^ Burton, James M. An Online Encyclopedia : The Apiaceae (Umbelliferae/Carrot/Parsley) Family of the British Isles http://www.spookspring.com/Umbels/Camb_Milk_PArs.html Retrieved : 12.55 18/9/17
  11. ^ Cooper, Marion R. and Johnson, Anthony W. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their effects on Animals and Man Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, Reference Book 161 (replacing Bulletin 161), pub. London U.K. : HMSO 1984 ISBN 0 11 242529 1
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Selinum carvifolia: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Selinum carvifolia is a flowering plant of the genus Selinum in the family Apiaceae. The specific name carvifolia signifies 'having leaves resembling those of Caraway'. It is a plant of fens and damp meadows, growing in most of Europe, with the exception of much of the Mediterranean region, eastwards to Central Asia. Its common name in English is Cambridge Milk Parsley, because it is confined, in the UK, to the county of Cambridgeshire and closely resembles Milk Parsley (Peucedanum palustre), an umbellifer of another genus, but found in similar habitats. The two plants are not only similar in appearance, but also grow in similar moist habitats, although they may be told apart in the following manner: P. palustre has hollow, often purplish stems, pinnatifid leaf lobes and deflexed bracteoles; while S. carvifolia has solid, greenish stems, entire or sometimes lobed leaf-lobes and erecto-patent bracteoles. Also, when the two plants are in fruit, another difference becomes apparent: the three dorsal ridges on the fruit of S. carvifolia are winged, while those on the fruit of P. palustre are not. Yet a further difference lies in the respective leaflets of the plants : those of Peucedanum palustre are blunt and pale at the tip, while those of Selinum carvifolia are sharply pointed and of a darker green. S. carvifolia used also to occur in the English counties of Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire but is now extinct in both. Growing in only three small Cambridgeshire fens, it is one of England's rarest umbellifers. It is naturalized in the United States, where it is known by the common name little-leaf angelica.

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Selinum tenuifolium

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Selinum tenuifolium is a flowering plant of the genus Selinum in the family Apiaceae. N.B. the current version of The Plant List lists the correct name of this plant as S. wallichianum and S. tenuifolium as a synonym - and not vice versa as given on this page.

Common name

The plant is known in Bhutan as Bam-po, while in India it bears the names Bhootheshi, Bhootkeshi, Dhoopkesh, Kher and Khishan. The common name of Selinum wallichianum is given as Wallich milk parsley.[1]

Description

Selinum tenuifolium can reach a height of 3–6 feet (0.91–1.83 m). It is a long-lived, tuberous-rooted, perennial plant bearing large umbels of thousands of tiny five-petalled white flowers from midsummer to early autumn. The delicate basal leaves are thin (hence the specific name tenuifolium - 'thin-leaved') and finely divided, giving them a fern-like appearance. The plant is grown as a hardy garden ornamental, suitable for informal mixed or shrub borders or woodland gardens, and is effective grown as a specimen plant to display to advantage the tiered effect of its attractive floral umbels.[2]

Distribution

The plant occurs in the Himalayas from India, Nepal, Kashmir and W. Pakistan to Bhutan.[3]

Habitat

Selinum tenuifolium is found in the wild growing among shrubs and also upon open slopes at an elevation of about 13,000 feet (4,000 m).

Cultivation

This plant is cultivated as an ornamental garden subject, and has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. [1][4]

Uses in folk medicine and ritual

The plant, like many others belonging to the family Apiaceae, is aromatic - particularly the root. The fruits (of the mericarp type) have sedative (see also anxiolytic) and aphrodisiac properties and are also used to treat rheumatism and kidney disease. The roots are used to treat abdominal pain (- many Apiaceous plants possess carminative properties, relieving bloating -) and also as a sedative in the treatment of 'hysteria' and 'madness' - particularly when these conditions occur in women (see also Culture-bound syndrome). The whole plant features in traditional magico-religious beliefs of the Himalayan region, being used to prepare dhoop (incense) for ceremonial use. More specifically, the powdered root is used as a fumigant in Tantric rituals intended to cure insanity, nervous breakdown and 'hysteria'.[5] The above uses suggest that preparations of the plant are capable of exerting effects upon the Central nervous system and Genitourinary system and that the plant may be mildly psychoactive, bearing comparison with the related Apiaceous plant Ferula moschata - another umbellifer with a long history of use in India to treat 'hysteria' and as a ritual incense and one which has been observed, on occasion, to elicit narcotic effects.[6] Folk-medicinal uses eliciting psycho-sexual effects further invite comparison with another Ferula species, namely Ferula hermonis, considered, like Selinum tenuifolium, to possess aphrodisiac properties.[7]

References

  1. ^ a b "RHS Plantfinder - Selinum wallichianum". Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  2. ^ The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants Editor-in-Chief Christopher Brickell, pub. Dorling Kindersley 1996, reprinted 1997, ISBN 0-7513-0303-8 page 952.
  3. ^ Polunin, Oleg and Stainton, Adam, Flowers of the Himalaya, pub. Oxford University Press 1984, page 157 and illustration on plate 51, of plant growing in Ganesh Himal range, Central Nepal.
  4. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 96. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  5. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2012). CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Volume 5 R-Z. CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, page 228.
  6. ^ Grieve, Mrs. M. A Modern Herbal , first published 1931,Jonathan Cape Ltd.,reprinted 1974 and 1975. pps. 781-2.
  7. ^ Graham White, National Institute of Medical Herbalists, Ferula hermonis "The Lebanese Viagra" by Stuart FitzSimmons
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Selinum tenuifolium: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Selinum tenuifolium is a flowering plant of the genus Selinum in the family Apiaceae. N.B. the current version of The Plant List lists the correct name of this plant as S. wallichianum and S. tenuifolium as a synonym - and not vice versa as given on this page.

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