Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

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Mountain snowberry crowns that are intertwined with surrounding big sagebrush will burn even when their moisture content is relatively high [68].

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

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More info for the terms: forest, mixed-severity fire, prescribed burn, prescribed fire, severity





It is unclear from the literature what part burning season plays in mountain snowberry's highly variable response to fire. On most sites plants survive low severity fires and sprout within the first year [30,32,68].



Fifteen years after a September prescribed burn in big sagebrush/grass habitat in Idaho, mountain snowberry production was nearly equal on light-severity and severely burned sites. Production was greatest on moderate-severity and unburned sites. Postfire production (lbs/acre, air-dry) was [4]:





 


Unburned
Light burn
Moderate burn
Severe burn

6.7
2.6
6.6
3.0



 



Koniak [30] found that in singleleaf pinyon-Utah juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands of California and Nevada, occurrence of mountain snowberry was significantly higher on 1-year-old August burns than on adjacent unburned woodlands.
In Nevada mountain big sagebrush, mountain snowberry plants regained 75% of prefire plant height within 4 years of late summer fires [68].


Mountain snowberry was severely damaged in Wyoming, however, following a late August prescribed burn in a quaking aspen forest. Twelve years after the burn, mountain snowberry was only producing about half the biomass of that being produced prior to the burn. Snowberry biomass production (air-dry, kg/ha) was as follows 3 and 12 years after different burn severities [1,2]:

Prefire 88
Postfire low moderate high
severity severity severity

3 years 9 36 7
12 years 48 25 18

Lyon's Research Paper
and the Research Project Summary Vegetation recovery
following a mixed-severity fire in aspen groves of western Wyoming
provide
information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species,
including mountain snowberry.
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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Common Names

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mountain snowberry

Utah snowberry
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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Cover Value

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More info for the term: cover

Due to its relatively low growth form, mountain snowberry provides moderate to low cover for most ungulates. In Oregon mule deer utilize mountain snowberry-dominated communities for cover where these communities provide the only diversity in large expanses of big sagebrush [34]. Mountain snowberry provides important hiding cover for a variety of small mammals and birds. Cover ratings by state have been summarized as follows [14]: OR UT WY Pronghorn ---- ---- Poor Elk ---- Poor Poor Mule deer Good Fair Fair White-tailed deer ---- ---- Fair Small mammals ---- Good Good Small nongame birds ---- Good Good Upland game birds ---- Good Good Waterfowl ---- Poor Poor

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Description

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More info for the terms: seed, shrub

Mountain snowberry is a native, deciduous, montane shrub. It is low growing, erect and sometimes trailing, with spreading to arching branches [11,25]. Although averaging 2 to 4 feet (0.6-1.2 m) in height, plants on good sites can grow up to 5 feet (1.5 m), while those on poor sites are barely a foot (0.3 m) tall. Fruits are white, berrylike drupes containing 2 nutlets, each of which contains a seed [33]. The genus Symphoricarpos is widely described as rhizomatous [4,58,66,67], but rhizomatous growth generally is less well developed in mountain snowberry than in most snowberry species [33,57,63].

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Distribution

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Mountain snowberry is a widespread cordilleran species. It occurs from the foothills to high elevations throughout the western mountains ranges from British Columbia to Alberta and south to California, New Mexico, and northern Mexico [11,25].

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Fire Ecology

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More info for the terms: fire regime, low-severity fire, root crown, severity

Mountain snowberry is a sprouter that is usually undamaged by low-severity fire but is top-killed by most fires of medium or high severity [19,58,62,66]. Sprouts are initiated from root crowns. Perennating buds on the root crown are located 1 inch (2.5 cm) below the mineral soil surface [65].

FIRE REGIMES:

Mountain snowberry occurs in plant communities with a variety of FIRE REGIMES. The range of fire intervals reported for some species that dominate communities where mountain snowberry occurs are listed below. To learn more about the FIRE REGIMES in these communities, refer to the FEIS summary for that species, under "FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS."

Community dominant Range of fire intervals (yrs) interior ponderosa pine 20-42 (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) Rocky Mt. Douglas-fir 10-30 (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca ) subalpine fir >100 (Abies lasiocarpa) Engelmann spruce >150 (Picea engelmannii) quaking aspen 5-10 (Populus tremuloides) mountain big sagebrush 10-50 (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) Gambel oak ---- (Quercus gambelii) Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find FIRE REGIMES".
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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Fire Management Considerations

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Snowberry species are capable of producing firebrand material. When large mountain snowberry plants are located near fire control lines, they may cause spot fires [42].

Elk browsed mountain snowberry more on burned than unburned quaking aspen forests. Postfire browsing may slow the shrub's recovery time [5,10].

Annual or very frequent fires may be detrimental to mountain snowberry [43].

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte
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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Habitat characteristics

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Mountain snowberry is found on all aspects on sites ranging from moist to fairly dry and in both acidic and basic soils. It usually occurs in sandy loam to clay loam. Elevational ranges for some western states have been reported as follows [14]:

5,500 to 10,500 feet (1677-3200 m) in Colorado
5,700 to 7,000 feet (1738-2134 m) in Montana
4,000 to 10,500 feet (1220-3200 m) in Utah
8,000 to 8,000 feet (2440-2440 m) in Wyoming

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):




206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir

210 Interior Douglas-fir

211 White fir

216 Blue spruce

217 Aspen

219 Limber pine

220 Rocky Mountain juniper

237 Interior ponderosa pine

238 Western juniper

239 Pinyon-juniper

241 Western live oak

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub



FRES20 Douglas-fir

FRES21 Ponderosa pine

FRES23 Fir-spruce

FRES26 Lodgepole pine

FRES28 Western hardwoods

FRES29 Sagebrush

FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub

FRES35 Pinyon-juniper

FRES36 Mountain grasslands

FRES40 Desert grasslands

FRES44 Alpine

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the terms: forest, woodland



K011 Western ponderosa forest

K012 Douglas-fir forest

K015 Western spruce-fir forest

K016 Eastern ponderosa forest

K017 Black Hills pine forest

K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest

K019 Arizona pine forest

K020 Spruce-fir-Douglas-fir forest

K021 Southwestern spruce-fir forest

K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland

K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub

K038 Great Basin sagebrush

K052 Alpine meadows and barren

K055 Sagebrush steppe

K057 Galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe

K063 Foothills prairie

K098 Northern floodplain forest

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: forb, shrubland, woodland



101 Bluebunch wheatgrass

107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass

108 Alpine Idaho fescue

109 Ponderosa pine shrubland

209 Montane shrubland

402 Mountain big sagebrush

409 Tall forb

411 Aspen woodland

412 Juniper-pinyon woodland

413 Gambel oak

415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany

805 Riparian

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Immediate Effect of Fire

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Fires top-kills mountain snowberry. Although plant survival may be variable, mountain snowberry root crowns usually survive even severe fires [10,32,44,68].

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

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Because of its abundance and wide distribution, mountain snowberry is important forage on many mountain ranges. Although not highly nutritious or palatable, mountain snowberry is frequently one of the first species to leaf out, making it a highly sought after food in the early spring [46]. Use by livestock and game is moderate throughout the summer and declines in fall. Mountain snowberry's low growth form makes its foliage easily available. Plants withstand browsing well and produce numerous basal sprouts following browsing [65]. Results of clipping experiments carried out in the mountain-brush zone of Utah indicate that mountain snowberry can withstand early season browsing if given sufficient time to recover [16].

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Key Plant Community Associations

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More info for the terms: codominant, forest, grassland, habitat type, mesic, series, shrub, shrubland




Mountain snowberry is a dominant shrub species in numerous nonforested
and forested communities in the western United States. Habitat types using
mountain snowberry as an indicator species have been identified within
the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), white fir (Abies concolor),
ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa), Gambel
oak (Quercus gambelii), and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) series.
Mountain snowberry also occurs within the pinyon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.) zone and is
a dominant understory species within the quaking aspen type throughout the
western mountains. It is a major component on open slopes in the mountain-brush zone, where it
may form pure stands. The upper limits of mountain snowberry's
elevational range extend into the subalpine zone [33].



Common associates of mountain snowberry in quaking
aspen communities are western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), Wood's
rose (Rosa woodsii), black chokecherry (Prunus virginiana var. melanocarpa),
fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia),
blue elderberry (Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea), lupine (Lupinus spp.) and
sticky geranium (Geranium viscosissimum) [2].



Common associates in Douglas-fir communities include Rocky mountain maple
(Acer glabrum), heartleaf arnica (Arnica cordifolia),
bristly black currant (Ribes lacustre), Saskatoon serviceberry, snowbrush
ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus), elk sedge (Carex geyeri),
fireweed, and butterweed (Senecio spp.) [49].



In Gambel oak communities of Utah, mountain snowberry often occurs with smooth sumac
(Rhus glabra), skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata), hackberry
(Celtis occidentalis), and mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia
tridentata var. vaseyana) [36]. Mountain snowberry is common within the big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/grass region and may become a codominant with big sagebrush, occurring most conspicuously on the more mesic sites with mountain big sagebrush [24].



Publications listing mountain snowberry as an indicator or dominant species in plant communities are listed below.



Grassland, shrubland, and forested habitat types of the White River-Arapaho National Forest [23]

Sagebrush-grass habitat types of southern Idaho [24]

Forest vegetation of the White River National Forest in western Colorado: a habitat type classification [26]

Aspen community types on the Caribou and Targhee National Forests in southeastern Idaho [39]

Aspen community types of Utah [40]

Forest habitat types of Montana [45]

A preliminary description of plant communities found on the Sawtooth, White Cloud, Boulder, and Pioneer Mountains [48]

Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming [51]

Forest habitat types of central Idaho [53]

Grassland and shrubland habitat types of the Shoshone National Forest [59]

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Life Form

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More info for the term: shrub

Shrub
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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Management considerations

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Mountain snowberry's tendency to sprout enables plants to persist
and even increase following browsing. However, plant densities decrease
substantially in response to prolonged browsing [9].


On high summer ranges in Oregon, domestic sheep have browsed mountain
snowberry to the ground in areas also heavily utilized by cattle [13].

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Nutritional Value

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Mountain snowberry has been rated fair in energy and protein value.
Nutritional value of mature browse for snowberry species is as follows [41]: Ash 8.3%
Crude fiber 15.8%
Ether extract 5.9%
N-free extract 62.6%
Protein 7.4%
Calcium 1.88%
Phosphorus .28%

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Occurrence in North America

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AZ CA CO ID MT NV NM OR TX UT WA WY

BC

MEXICO
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Other uses and values

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Mountain snowberries are highly regarded for the beauty of their foliage and fruits and are widely grown as ornamentals [60].

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Palatability

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More info for the term: forest




Mountain snowberry is readily eaten by all classes of livestock, particularly domestic sheep. Palatability varies in different localities and different plant communities. In general mountain snowberry has greater palatability in the Intermountain region than on more southern or western ranges [12]. Mountain snowberry is a highly valued elk and domestic sheep forage within quaking aspen types in Colorado and Wyoming [7]. Mountain snowberry is of no value for horses [43].


Mountain snowberry is an important forage species for deer and elk on high elevation summer ranges. On quaking aspen forest summer range in Utah, mountain snowberry comprised 24% of the diet for elk and 20% for mule deer [6]. Ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasants, and yellow-billed magpies utilize the fruits [50].


The degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species for mountain
snowberry is rated as follows [14]: CO MT OR UT WY
Cattle Fair Fair ---- Fair Fair
Domestic Sheep Fair ---- ---- Good Fair
Horses Poor ---- ---- Poor Fair
Pronghorn ---- ---- ---- ---- Fair
Elk Poor ---- ---- Good Good
Mule deer Poor ---- Good Good Good
Small mammals ---- ---- ---- Good Good
Small nongame birds ---- ---- ---- Fair Good
Upland game birds ---- ---- ---- Good Good
Waterfowl ---- ---- ---- Poor Poor

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Phenology

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More info for the terms: dough stage, fruit, litter

Mountain snowberry initiates growth early in the spring. Basal shoots have been observed growing in the soil before total snowmelt [65]. The carbohydrate reserve cycle for mountain snowberry has been studied in the mountain-brush zone in Utah [15,23,65]. In general, reserves are at a maximum at full flower, and this maximum is maintained as plants enter dormancy in the fall. Reserves are approximately 25% depleted before the end of dormancy (stem bud swelling) due to the sprouting of basal crown buds below the snow and litter layers. The seasonal low is reached when leaves are 1/2 to 3/4ths mature and leaf buds still remain at the apex of the stems. At this time reserves are approximately 40% lower than the summer high in all perennial plant parts. From June until mid-August carbon reserves are replenished in all plant parts. Stem growth and limited flower production and set are all accomplished during this time.

There is a seasonal change in the aboveground and belowground distribution of carbon reserves. Generally carbohydrate reserve quantities are greater in the aboveground biomass than in the belowground biomass. This balance shifts at the point of maximum reserve depletion (late May or early June) [23].

Average dates of the initiation of phenological events at different elevations on the Wasatch Plateau, Utah, from 1925 to 1934, are presented below [8]. Phenological event Elevation 7,655 ft 8,450 ft 8,850 ft (2234 m) (2576 m) (2698 m) Date Flower buds bursting June 17 June 22 July 2 Leaf buds bursting May 3 May 8 May 19 In full leaf June 1 June 5 June 15 In full bloom June 26 June 30 July 8 Fruit all ripe Aug. 20 Aug. 17 Aug. 21 Fruit dropped Sept. 18 Sept. 12 Sept. 26 Leaves all dropped Oct. 6 Oct. 14 Oct. 11 Phenological data for mountain snowberry plants located on a mountain-brush zone site at 6,822 feet (2080 m) in Utah are as follows [65]:

May 21   Twigs elongating; sprouts appearing above ground surface
May 30   Twigs elongating; leaves developing
June 5    Twigs elongating; flowers beginning to open
June 12   Fruit developing - early dough stage
June 26   Fruit in hard dough stage
July 15    Fruit disseminating
Aug. 3     Fruit mostly disseminated
Sept. 1    Leaves mostly abscised; mostly dormant
Oct. 1     Dormant

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Plant Response to Fire

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More info for the terms: low-severity fire, root crown

Mountain snowberry sprouts from basal buds at the root crown following fire [10,32,58,66,67]. This species is a weak sprouter [10,42,67], especially after severe fire. Although the majority of plants survive burning and sprouting is reliable, sprout production can be limited initially and may remain so for several years. Recovery rates are variable. Mountain snowberry is usually top-killed but otherwise undamaged by low-severity fire, but may show decreases the first few years after severe fire [32,44]. Even after severe fire, prefire numbers and coverages are usually regained by 15 years [4,36,42,44,68].

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Post-fire Regeneration

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More info for the terms: root crown, shrub

Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: layering, root crown, seed, shrubs, stratification, woodland

Mountain snowberry reproduces vegetatively and by seed. Individual plants produce basal sprouts from a root crown; perennating buds are usually located approximately 0.8 to 1.2 inches (2-3 cm) below the ground surface [55,65]. Layering has also been observed in mountain snowberry [11,65]. Herbarium specimens from a ponderosa pine woodland in Musselshell County, Montana, have short, distinct rhizomes [57].

Since no abscission layer is formed on the pedicle, fruits may persist on shrubs for up to 2 seasons before falling to the ground. Seed dormancy is broken by stratification in the soil; ripening and development of the embryo occur during 1 or 2 winters. Seeds do not remain viable and are not stored in the soil for extended periods. Birds and mammals are probably the main dispersal agents. Germination begins in the early spring as soon as the soil thaws. Mountain snowberry germinates best on bare soil in partial shade [52].

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):




1 Northern Pacific Border

2 Cascade Mountains

3 Southern Pacific Border

4 Sierra Mountains

5 Columbia Plateau

6 Upper Basin and Range

7 Lower Basin and Range

8 Northern Rocky Mountains

9 Middle Rocky Mountains

10 Wyoming Basin

11 Southern Rocky Mountains

13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont

16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Successional Status

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Mountain snowberry generally establishes in early seral stages and coexists with later arriving species [27,52]. Within pinyon-juniper communities, mountain snowberry remains a major component throughout all successional stages [30]. Mountain snowberry is rarely found in dense shade [60]. Within forested communities mountain snowberry grows under open canopies and along the edges of parks, dry meadows, and other openings.

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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Synonyms

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Symphoricarpos utahensis Rydb. [22]
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Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Taxonomy

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The scientific name of mountain snowberry is Symphoricarpos oreophilus A. Gray (Caprifoliaceae) [11,25,28,29,64].



Varieties are [64]:



S. oreophilus var. oreophilus,  mountain snowberry

S. oreophilus var. utahensis (Rydb) A. Nels. , Utah snowberry

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bibliographic citation
Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

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More info for the terms: cover, layering, seed, stratification

Mountain snowberry is useful for establishing cover on bare sites and has done well when planted onto roadbanks [38]. Once established it persists well and spreads vegetatively through layering [46]. Revegetation has been particularly successful using transplanted wildings. Transplants are easily obtained by pulling up small rooted portions of plants in the early spring before leaf growth has begun. Plants can also be propagated via stem cuttings [17] and seed [38]. Mountain snowberry is recommended for riparian plantings in wet meadow and forested communities [37]. Direct seeding is generally recommended in the fall or winter on well-drained sites in the following types: big sagebrush, mountain brush, pinyon-juniper, quaking aspen openings, and subalpine herblands. Commercial seed may be dried fruits or cleaned seed. Seeds have a pronounced dormancy; acid treatments break down the seedcoat. Stratification should be employed for spring planting. Maximum storage period for mountain snowberry seeds is 10 years [54]. Cultivated seedlings can reach 30 inches (76 cm) within 5 years [38].

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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symore/all.html

Symphoricarpos oreophilus

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Symphoricarpos oreophilus is a North American species of flowering plant in the Caprifoliaceae, or honeysuckle family, known by the common name mountain snowberry.[3] It has a wide distribution in western Canada, the United States, and northwestern Mexico. It is found in mountainous areas such as the Cascades, the Sierra Nevada, the Rockies, and the Sierra Madre Occidental from British Columbia to the Copper Canyon region of Chihuahua, from the coastal states as far inland as the Black Hills, the Oklahoma Panhandle, and trans-Pecos Texas.[4][5][6][7]

Symphoricarpos oreophilus is a deciduous shrub growing erect or spreading or trailing. Depending on environmental conditions it may reach 30 centimetres (12 in) to 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) in mature height. The fruit is a white drupe containing two nutlets, each of which contains a seed. The plant grows from a rhizome. It reproduces vegetatively by sprouting from the rhizome and by layering, and sexually via seed.[4]

Symphoricarpos oreophilus is common in many types of habitat in western North America, and it may dominate some ecosystems,[4] such as sagebrush.[8] It is also an indicator species of certain habitat types where Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), white fir (Abies concolor), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa), Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii), and/or quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) make up the overstory. It grows in all successional stages in pinyon-juniper woodlands. It is usually found in open habitat, as it does not easily tolerate shade. In heavily forested regions it grows in open areas and breaks in the canopy.[4]

Many types of animal use this plant for food, especially in the early spring, when it is one of the first plants to bear leaves. Deer, elk, and livestock browse the foliage.[4] Some small mammals use the shrubs for cover.[9] Birds such as the yellow-billed magpie consume the fruits.[4] The saponin-containing berries are inedible to humans.[10]

References

  1. ^ Tropicos, Symphoricarpos oreophilus A. Gray
  2. ^ The Plant List, Symphoricarpos oreophilus var. utahensis (Rydb.) A. Nelson
  3. ^ "Symphoricarpos oreophilus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Aleksoff, Keith C. 1999. Symphoricarpos oreophilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.
  5. ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
  6. ^ SEINet, Southwestern Biodiversity, Arizona chapter photos, distribution map
  7. ^ Jones, George Neville 1940. A monograph of the genus Symphoricarpos. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 21(2): 201-252
  8. ^ Symphoricarpos oreophilus. The Nature Conservancy.
  9. ^ Whitney, Stephen (1985). Western Forests (The Audubon Society Nature Guides). New York: Knopf. p. 428. ISBN 0-394-73127-1.
  10. ^ Fagan, Damian (2019). Wildflowers of Oregon: A Field Guide to Over 400 Wildflowers, Trees, and Shrubs of the Coast, Cascades, and High Desert. Guilford, CT: FalconGuides. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-4930-3633-2. OCLC 1073035766.

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Symphoricarpos oreophilus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Symphoricarpos oreophilus is a North American species of flowering plant in the Caprifoliaceae, or honeysuckle family, known by the common name mountain snowberry. It has a wide distribution in western Canada, the United States, and northwestern Mexico. It is found in mountainous areas such as the Cascades, the Sierra Nevada, the Rockies, and the Sierra Madre Occidental from British Columbia to the Copper Canyon region of Chihuahua, from the coastal states as far inland as the Black Hills, the Oklahoma Panhandle, and trans-Pecos Texas.

Symphoricarpos oreophilus is a deciduous shrub growing erect or spreading or trailing. Depending on environmental conditions it may reach 30 centimetres (12 in) to 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) in mature height. The fruit is a white drupe containing two nutlets, each of which contains a seed. The plant grows from a rhizome. It reproduces vegetatively by sprouting from the rhizome and by layering, and sexually via seed.

Symphoricarpos oreophilus is common in many types of habitat in western North America, and it may dominate some ecosystems, such as sagebrush. It is also an indicator species of certain habitat types where Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), white fir (Abies concolor), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa), Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii), and/or quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) make up the overstory. It grows in all successional stages in pinyon-juniper woodlands. It is usually found in open habitat, as it does not easily tolerate shade. In heavily forested regions it grows in open areas and breaks in the canopy.

Many types of animal use this plant for food, especially in the early spring, when it is one of the first plants to bear leaves. Deer, elk, and livestock browse the foliage. Some small mammals use the shrubs for cover. Birds such as the yellow-billed magpie consume the fruits. The saponin-containing berries are inedible to humans.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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