Definition: 1) Producing live offspring from within the body of the parent (Lincoln et al., 1998). 2) Development of an embryo within the body of the parent, in part, resources passing directly from parent to embryo (Barnes et al., 2006).
Definition: A tundra is a terrestrial biome which includes, across its spatial extent, only low-growing vegetation such as dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Tundra biomes rarely have monthly average temperatures above 10 degrees Celsius and have low evapotranspiration ratios.
Definition: Component found in mineralized skeletal tissue, (a specialized form of biogenic tissue in which the extracellular matrix is mineralized, and which functions in mechanical and structural support.)