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Centropomidae

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Centropomus Lacépède, 1802, is a genus of predominantly marine fish comprising the family Centropomidae The type species is Centropomus undecimalis, the common snook. Commonly known as snooks or róbalos, the Centropomus species are native to tropical and subtropical waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans.

Prior to 2004 the subfamily Latinae, which contained three genera, was placed within Centropomidae; this has since been raised to the family level and renamed Latidae because a cladistic analysis showed the old Centropomidae to be paraphyletic. This has left Centropomus as the only remaining genus in this family. These are popular game and food fishes.

Dating from the upper Cretaceous, the centropomids are of typical percoid shape, distinguished by having two-part dorsal fins, a lateral line that extends onto the tail, and, frequently, a concave shape to the head. They range from 35 to 120 cm (14 to 47 in) in length and are found in tropical and subtropical waters.[3] The snook species range in maximum length from about 35 cm (14 in) to some 140 cm (4 ft 7 in), with maximum recorded weights of 1.0 – 26 kg (2.2 – 57 lb).

Occurring in a variety of habitats ranging from coral reefs to estuaries and mangrove swamps, the snooks are carnivorous, feeding primarily on crustaceans and other fishes.

Many of the snooks are important as commercial food fish and as game fish.

The generic name Centropomus derives from the Greek κέντρον (centre, in this sense "sting") and πώμα (cover, plug, operculum).

‘Róbalo’ or snook are world-renowned game fish of the family Centropomidae and genus Centropomus that are much sought after by fly fishing enthusiasts and sportfishing charters. Six Atlantic and six Pacific Ocean species are currently recognized as scientifically valid. All are known to inhabit Central America and all are excellent gamefish. There is no evidence found of the individual species crossing from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean or vice versa through the Panama Canal. All Robalo or snook species are capable of inhabiting both fresh and saltwater and are known to seasonally occupy Gatun Lake, which forms a water bridge connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as an integral part of the Panama Canal. Of the twelve species only 4 are known to reach sizes in excess of 10 lbs. – two Atlantic Ocean species (Centropomus undecimalis and Centropomus poeyi) and two Pacific Ocean species (Centropomus viridis and Centropomus nigrescens). The eight species of smaller Robalo usually grow to less than 6 lbs. and can be readily distinguished by from the four larger species by their noticeably longer anal spine, anal fin configuration and body shape. The four large species are immediately recognizable by their more streamlined appearance given by the longer narrower body shape. Many individual species of Robalo bear a close resemblance to one another although they may be from the same or different oceans so identification is best left up to experts. The two Atlantic Ocean large Robalo species (Centropomus undecimalis and Centropomus poeyi) are virtually identical in appearance. They can usually only be distinguished by the number of gill rakers each possesses. The Robalo or common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) commonly has eleven to thirteen non-rudimentary gill rakers and the Mexican snook (Centropomus Poeyi) is most often found to possess fifteen to eighteen non-rudimentary gill rakers. The Pacific Ocean “Robalo Ñato” or white snook (Centropomus viridis) is also a dead ringer for the common snook (Centropomus undecimalis). The distinguishing feature is also the non-rudimentary gill raker count with thirteen to fifteen for the white snook (Centropomus Viridis). They act, breed, grow and fight virtually the same. Curiously, laboratory reared specimens of the common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) showed meristic variations in vertebrae, fin ray and gill raker numbers not observed in specimens from the wild. These variations are suspected to be due to diet and growth rates. Large Robalo caught in Lake Gatun invariably cause a wealth of confusion. The IGFA requires verification of the species by a designated authority for world record claims. The two Pacific Ocean species of large Robalo (Centropomus viridis and Centropomus nigrescens) are somewhat easier to distinguish.

The ‘Robalo Redondo’ or black snook (Centropomus nigrescens) can be differentiated by three visually apparent characteristics when compared to the ‘Robalo Ñato’ or white snook (Centropomus viridis):

  • 1) The body of Centropomus nigrescens, while similarly elongate is rounder and heavier in general appearance – being thicker through the middle than Centropomus viridis.
  • 2) The head of Centropomus nigrescens is bigger and the undershot jaw, characteristic of all Róbalo is far less pronounced than in Centropomus viridis.
  • 3) Most importantly, the fourth dorsal spine of Centropomus nigrescens is taller than the third. In both species the first two dorsal spines are hardly noticeable. In large specimens these first two spines are only a quarter of an inch long, while the third spine is over two inches in length. Therefore, if the first long dorsal spine is longer than all the others, it is a Centropomus viridis; however if the first long dorsal spine is shorter than the second long dorsal spine it is a Centropomus nigrescens.

Species

In culture

In the Second World War, snook from South Africa was imported to Britain to alleviate the shortage of meat. It was unfamiliar, and the Ministry of Food's advice with recipes like "Snoek Piquante" made the fish a "shorthand for everything unpalatable about food rationing."[5]

The United States Navy submarines named USS Robalo and USS Snook are named for the common snook.

References

  1. ^ Richard van der Laan; William N. Eschmeyer & Ronald Fricke (2014). "Family-group names of Recent fishes". Zootaxa. 3882 (2): 001–230.
  2. ^ Eschmeyer, W. N.; R. Fricke & R. van der Laan (eds.). "Centropomus". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  3. ^ Johnson, G.D.; Gill, A.C. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 186. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
  4. ^ Carvalho, A.; Oliviera, J. de; Soares, C.; Araripe, J. "A new species of snook, Centropomus (Teleostei: Centropomidae), from northern South America, with notes on the geographic distribution of other species of the genus". Zootaxa. 4671 (1): 81–92. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4671.1.6.
  5. ^ Ann, Antonia (7 July 2011). "Snoek (Snook)". Wartime Recipes. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 8 August 2019. like Snoek Piquante which seems to have become a kind of shorthand for everything unpalatable about food rationing

Snook or Robalo types as game fish Reference www.panamafishingandcatching.com at "http://www.panamafishingandcatching.com/1-bayano.htm"

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Centropomidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Centropomus Lacépède, 1802, is a genus of predominantly marine fish comprising the family Centropomidae The type species is Centropomus undecimalis, the common snook. Commonly known as snooks or róbalos, the Centropomus species are native to tropical and subtropical waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans.

Prior to 2004 the subfamily Latinae, which contained three genera, was placed within Centropomidae; this has since been raised to the family level and renamed Latidae because a cladistic analysis showed the old Centropomidae to be paraphyletic. This has left Centropomus as the only remaining genus in this family. These are popular game and food fishes.

Dating from the upper Cretaceous, the centropomids are of typical percoid shape, distinguished by having two-part dorsal fins, a lateral line that extends onto the tail, and, frequently, a concave shape to the head. They range from 35 to 120 cm (14 to 47 in) in length and are found in tropical and subtropical waters. The snook species range in maximum length from about 35 cm (14 in) to some 140 cm (4 ft 7 in), with maximum recorded weights of 1.0 – 26 kg (2.2 – 57 lb).

Occurring in a variety of habitats ranging from coral reefs to estuaries and mangrove swamps, the snooks are carnivorous, feeding primarily on crustaceans and other fishes.

Many of the snooks are important as commercial food fish and as game fish.

The generic name Centropomus derives from the Greek κέντρον (centre, in this sense "sting") and πώμα (cover, plug, operculum).

‘Róbalo’ or snook are world-renowned game fish of the family Centropomidae and genus Centropomus that are much sought after by fly fishing enthusiasts and sportfishing charters. Six Atlantic and six Pacific Ocean species are currently recognized as scientifically valid. All are known to inhabit Central America and all are excellent gamefish. There is no evidence found of the individual species crossing from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean or vice versa through the Panama Canal. All Robalo or snook species are capable of inhabiting both fresh and saltwater and are known to seasonally occupy Gatun Lake, which forms a water bridge connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as an integral part of the Panama Canal. Of the twelve species only 4 are known to reach sizes in excess of 10 lbs. – two Atlantic Ocean species (Centropomus undecimalis and Centropomus poeyi) and two Pacific Ocean species (Centropomus viridis and Centropomus nigrescens). The eight species of smaller Robalo usually grow to less than 6 lbs. and can be readily distinguished by from the four larger species by their noticeably longer anal spine, anal fin configuration and body shape. The four large species are immediately recognizable by their more streamlined appearance given by the longer narrower body shape. Many individual species of Robalo bear a close resemblance to one another although they may be from the same or different oceans so identification is best left up to experts. The two Atlantic Ocean large Robalo species (Centropomus undecimalis and Centropomus poeyi) are virtually identical in appearance. They can usually only be distinguished by the number of gill rakers each possesses. The Robalo or common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) commonly has eleven to thirteen non-rudimentary gill rakers and the Mexican snook (Centropomus Poeyi) is most often found to possess fifteen to eighteen non-rudimentary gill rakers. The Pacific Ocean “Robalo Ñato” or white snook (Centropomus viridis) is also a dead ringer for the common snook (Centropomus undecimalis). The distinguishing feature is also the non-rudimentary gill raker count with thirteen to fifteen for the white snook (Centropomus Viridis). They act, breed, grow and fight virtually the same. Curiously, laboratory reared specimens of the common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) showed meristic variations in vertebrae, fin ray and gill raker numbers not observed in specimens from the wild. These variations are suspected to be due to diet and growth rates. Large Robalo caught in Lake Gatun invariably cause a wealth of confusion. The IGFA requires verification of the species by a designated authority for world record claims. The two Pacific Ocean species of large Robalo (Centropomus viridis and Centropomus nigrescens) are somewhat easier to distinguish.

The ‘Robalo Redondo’ or black snook (Centropomus nigrescens) can be differentiated by three visually apparent characteristics when compared to the ‘Robalo Ñato’ or white snook (Centropomus viridis):

1) The body of Centropomus nigrescens, while similarly elongate is rounder and heavier in general appearance – being thicker through the middle than Centropomus viridis. 2) The head of Centropomus nigrescens is bigger and the undershot jaw, characteristic of all Róbalo is far less pronounced than in Centropomus viridis. 3) Most importantly, the fourth dorsal spine of Centropomus nigrescens is taller than the third. In both species the first two dorsal spines are hardly noticeable. In large specimens these first two spines are only a quarter of an inch long, while the third spine is over two inches in length. Therefore, if the first long dorsal spine is longer than all the others, it is a Centropomus viridis; however if the first long dorsal spine is shorter than the second long dorsal spine it is a Centropomus nigrescens.
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Latidae

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The Latidae, known as the lates perches, are a family of perch-like fishes found in Africa, Asia and the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. The family includes about 13 species. The family, previously classified subfamily Latinae in family Centropomidae, was raised to family status in 2004 after a cladistic analysis showed the original Centropomidae were paraphyletic.[2]

The Latidae are characterised by having dorsal fins which are incompletely separated or, if they are separated, there will be a few isolated spines between the anterior and posterior parts of the fin. They have a caudal fin which is normally rounded. All species have a vertebral column made up of 25 vertebrae.[3]

Many species in this family are important food fishes, and some have been introduced outside their native ranges to provide fishing stocks. The freshwater Nile perch, a fierce predator, has become infamous, as its introduction into Lake Victoria in the 1950s has wrought devastation on the native fishes of the lake, causing the extinction of many endemic cichlids there.[4]

Genera

The Latidae contains three extant and one extinct general [3][5][6]

† denotes that this taxon is extinct

References

  1. ^ Richard van der Laan; William N. Eschmeyer & Ronald Fricke (2014). "Family-group names of Recent fishes". Zootaxa. 3882 (2): 001–230. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3882.1.1. PMID 25543675.
  2. ^ Otero, Olga (May 2004). "Anatomy, systematics and phylogeny of both Recent and fossil latid fishes (Teleostei, Perciformes, Latidae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 141 (1): 81–133. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2004.00111.x.
  3. ^ a b J. S. Nelson; T. C. Grande; M. V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). Wiley. p. 432. ISBN 978-1-118-34233-6.
  4. ^ Pringle, R.M. (2005). The Origins of the Nile Perch in Lake Victoria. BioScience 55 (9): 780-787.
  5. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2019). "Latidae" in FishBase. December 2019 version.
  6. ^ Eschmeyer, W. N.; R. Fricke & R. van der Laan (eds.). "Latidae genera". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
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Latidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Latidae, known as the lates perches, are a family of perch-like fishes found in Africa, Asia and the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. The family includes about 13 species. The family, previously classified subfamily Latinae in family Centropomidae, was raised to family status in 2004 after a cladistic analysis showed the original Centropomidae were paraphyletic.

The Latidae are characterised by having dorsal fins which are incompletely separated or, if they are separated, there will be a few isolated spines between the anterior and posterior parts of the fin. They have a caudal fin which is normally rounded. All species have a vertebral column made up of 25 vertebrae.

Many species in this family are important food fishes, and some have been introduced outside their native ranges to provide fishing stocks. The freshwater Nile perch, a fierce predator, has become infamous, as its introduction into Lake Victoria in the 1950s has wrought devastation on the native fishes of the lake, causing the extinction of many endemic cichlids there.

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Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Lateral line extends onto caudal peduncle, reaching posterior margin of fin (except in one species of Centropominae and Latinae). Pelvic axis usually with scaly process. Dorsal fin bipartite (either deeply notched or with a distinct gap). With 7-9 spines on the first part; one spine and 8-15 soft rays on the second. Three anal fin spines; soft rays 6-17 (6-9 in subfamilies Centropominae and Latinae). One spine on pelvic fin; soft rays 5. Caudal fin rounded, truncate or forked. Branchiostegal rays 7. Vertebrae 24 or 25. Attains about 2 m maximum length.
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bibliographic citation
MASDEA (1997).
Contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]